Psychologists refer to unconscious biases as our unintentional people preferences that result from the processes of socialisation and social categorisation.
Research has demonstrated that when the unconscious brain sees two things occurring together (for example, women and child caring roles) it begins to wire these associations together neurally.
Constant exposure to images and stories of women in child caring roles via the media, home situations, personal encounters and work environments reinforce these neuro connections resulting in what is often referred to as ‘soft-wired’ bias.
A useful analogy is that of ‘software’ whereby our biases are created and ‘written down’ during our lifetime. Like software there is capability within the brain to change (plasticity), which means we may also be able to re-wire our implicit people preferences.
Our unconscious biases are likely to be activated whenever we encounter people who are similar to us and people who are different to us.
Importantly we know that our biases affect our perceptions of competence and thus our hiring and talent management decisions within a workplace context. A 2012 study by the Policy Exchange found ingrained levels of age based bias in the UK labour market, whilst a 2009 Department for Work and Pensions study found significant levels of ethnic bias amongst UK employers.
These studies and others into areas such as appearance and sexual orientation indicate high levels of unconscious biases and the extent to which our unintentional people preferences play out in recruitment and people management decisions.
Previous research tells us that we need to be mindful of certain types of biases. A common form of unconscious bias is affinity bias. This type of bias impacts talent processes in organisational decision-making including in the following ways:
- How we recruit: Managers are more likely to hire people who look similar or with sounding names to them.
- Work allocation: Managers are more likely to assign key client projects to individuals within their teams who they have an unconscious affinity with.
- Performance: Managers are more likely spend time informally discussing contributions to the team and will focus on development and future work plans. For those where there is little affinity managers are more likely to question past performance. The conversation will be less friendly and even hostile at times.
Unconscious Bias: Creating Change
In its work Marshall E-Learning stresses the need for individual and system level actions. From a practical perspective here are 5 things that leaders can do to tackle unconscious bias:
1. Schedule meeting at times to ensure maximum participation.
2. When on a conference call or in a meeting, ensure you invite everyone to contribute to the discussion. Listen for who is dominating.
3. Watch who attends team social events and look for individuals or groups of individuals who simply don’t attend or make excuses. Ask why.
4. Take a few risks by allocating a challenging piece of work to someone whose potential you haven’t previously recognised.
5. Have a coffee with someone who is very different from you (age, seniority, gender, background etc). Ask for their ideas or view on a subject without giving yours first!
At the system or organizational level Marshall E-Learning would recommend:
1. Create opportunities for team reflection: it helps to prevent Groupthink and challenges existing biases.
2. Introduce ‘Blind’ decision-making: In recruitment, remove information such as names and universities from application processes.
3. Find some good role models in the business. E.g. those working flexible hours. Use these stories as challenges to traditional viewpoints
4. Talk to key stakeholders: Challenge your recruitment agencies and headhunters when they say, ‘the (diverse) talent is just not out there’.
5. Develop sponsorship programmes and hold individuals to account on their inclusion targets: Holding individuals to account increases vigilance.
Implementing these actions begins to break down existing biases whilst creating new thinking processes, leadership behaviour patterns and inclusive decision-making.
As the global village continues to integrate and connect bias control and inclusive leadership will become the new norm. In this context we move away from the ‘why?’ to the ‘how and now’.
Marshall E-Learning Consultancy is offering a free consultation for businesses looking to find out more about Unconscious Bias. Its e-learning courses can help employees overcome the biases that we all have. The free consultation and further information is available by contacting Marshall E-Learning Consultancy.